Cinismo y comportamiento organizacional: Una relación dialéctica.

Contenido principal del artículo


Juan Cristóbal Cox.

Nicolás Didier Pino


El cinismo organizacional, como tópico de comportamiento organizacional ha sido escasamente desarrollado en la literatura, en comparación con otras dimensiones como lo son la justicia, el compromiso o la satisfacción con el trabajo. El presente artículo busca describir cuales son las condiciones organizacionales que provocan la emergencia del cinismo. A través de un estudio realizado en tres empresas chilenas (n=1242), se probó un modelo mediacional respecto de la relación de la seguridad laboral, la percepción de políticas organizacionales y el cinismo. Los resultados muestran que la justicia y el compromiso organizacional funcionan adecuadamente como mediadores. Las consecuencias teóricas y empíricas se abordan en la discusión.

Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo


Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Ajzen, I. (1994). Attitudes. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (2a. ed.) (pp. 114–116). New York: Wiley.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252-276.

Andersson, L. (1996). Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework. Human Relations, 49, 1395-1418.

Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (1997). Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 449-469.

Appel, J.,& Kim-Appel, D. (2008) Family Systems at Work: The Relationship Between Family Coping and Employee Burnout. The family journal: Counseling and therapy for couples and families. 16(3), 231-239.

Aquino, K.,Lewis, M. U., & M. Bradfield (1999) Justice constructs, negative affectivity, and employee deviance: A proposed model and empirical test. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1073-1091.

Atwater, L., Waldman, D., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000) An Upward Feedback Field Experiment: Supervisors’ Cynicism, Reactions, and Commitment To Subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53(2), 275-297.

Baruch, Y., & Holtom, B. (2008) Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations, 61(8), 1139-1160.

Bernerth, J.B., Armenakis, A., & Walker, H. J. (2007) Justice, Cynicism, and Commitment A Study of Important Organizational Change Variables. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(3), 303-326.

Brandes, P., Castro, S., James, M., Martinez, A., Matherly, T., Ferris, G., & Hochwater, W. (2008) The Interactive Effects of Job Insecurity and Organizational Cynicism on Work Effort Following a Layoff. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(3), 233-247.

Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 307–311.

Cropanzano, R., Howes, J. C., Grandey, A., & Toth, P. (1997) The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(2), 159–180.

Davis, W.,& Gardner, W. (2004) Perceptions of politics and organizational cynicism: An attributional and leader–member exchange perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 439–465.

Davy, J., Kinicki, A., & Scheck, C. (1997). A test of job security’s direct and mediating effects on withdrawal cognitions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 323-349.

Dean, J., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998) Organizational cynicism. Academy of Management Review, 2, 313-352.

Glatter, R., & Kydd, L.(2003) `Best Practice’ in Educational Leadership and Management: Can We Identify It and Learn from It? Educational Management Administration Leadership, 31, 231-243.

Gardner, W., Avolio, B., Luthans, F., May, D., & Walumbwa, F. (2005) ‘Can you see the real me?’ A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 343–372.

Gelade, G.A., Dobson, P., & Gilbert, P. (2006) National differences in organizational commitment: Effect of economy, product of personality, or consequence of culture? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 542-556.

Halbesleben, J., & Buckley, R.M. (2004) Burnout in Organizational Life. Journal of Management, 30(6), 859–879.

Hartley, J., Jacobson, D., Klandermans, B., & van Vuuren, T. (1991) Job insecurity: Coping with Jobs at Risk. London: Sage. Hochwarter, W., Kiewitz, C., Castro, S., Perrewe, P., & Ferris, G. (2003). Positive affectivity and collective efficacy as moderators of the relationship between perceived politics and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social
Psychology, 33, 1009-1035.

Hochwarter, W.A., Witt, L.A., & Kacmar, K.M. (2000). The moderating effects of perceptions of organizational politics on the conscientiousness - sales performance relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 472-478.

Hochwarter, W., & Treadway, D. (2003). The interactive effects of negative and positive affect on the politics perceptions – job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Management, 2, 551-567.

Jex, S. M., & Beehr, T. A. (1991). Emerging theoretical and methodological issues in the study of work-related stress. In K. Rowland & G. Ferris (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management (pp. 311-365). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Kacmar, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (1999). Organizational politics: The state of the field, links to related processes, and an agenda for future research. En G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, vol. 17 (pp. 1–39). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Kacmar, K. M., Bozeman, D. P., Carlson, D. S., & Anthony,W. P. (1999). An examination of the perceptions of organizational politics model: Replication and extension. Human Relations, 52(3), 383–416.

Kacmar, K. M., & Ferris, G. R. (1991). Perceptions of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS): Development and construct validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(1), 193–205.

Leiter, M. P,, & Maslach, C. (2005). Banishing burnout: Six strategies for improving your relationship with work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Leiter, M. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1996). Consistency of the burnout construct across occupations. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 9, 229-243.

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-52.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Meyer, J. P., Bobocel, D. R., & Allen, N. J. (1991). Development of organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal study of pre- and postentry influences. Journal of Management, 17, 717–733.

Moorman, R. H., Blakely, G. L., & Niehoff, B. P. (1998). Does organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior? Academy of Management Journal, 41, 351-357.

Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993) Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behaviors. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 527-556.

Nye, L. G., & Witt, L. A. (1993). Dimensionality and construct validity of the Perceptions of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(3), 821–829.

Rogelberg, S., & Stanton, J. (2007) Understanding and Dealing With Organizational Survey Nonresponse. Organizational Research Methods 10(2), 195-209

Rosen, C.C., Harris, K.J., & Kacmar, M. (2009) The emotional implications of organizational politics: A process model. Human Relations, 62(1), 27-57.

Rosenblatt, Z., & Ruvio, A. (1996). A test of a multidimensional model of job insecurity: The case of Israeli teachers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 587-605.

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., García-Renedo, M., Burriel, R., Breso, E., Schaufeli, W (2005) Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65(5), 807-

Sverke, M., & Goslinga, S. (2003). The Consequences of Job Insecurity for Employers and Unions: Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 24(2), 241-270.

Sverke, M., J. Hellgren K., & Näswall (2002) `No Security: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Job Insecurity and its Consequences’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 242-264.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel & L. W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chigago: Nelson-Hall.

Valle, M., & Perrewe, P. L. (2000). Do politics relate to political behaviors Tests of an implicit assumption and expanded model. Human Relations, 53(3), 359–386.


Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObrasDerivadas 4.0.

Los autores que publican en la Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología están de acuerdo con los siguientes términos:

  1. Los autores conservan los derechos de autor y garantizan a la revista el derecho de ser la primera publicación del trabajo al igual que licenciado bajo una Creative Commons Attribution License que permite a otros compartir el trabajo con un reconocimiento de la autoría del trabajo y la publicación inicial en esta revista.
  2. Los autores pueden establecer por separado acuerdos adicionales para la distribución no exclusiva de la versión de la obra publicada en la revista (por ejemplo, situarlo en un repositorio institucional o publicarlo en un libro), con un reconocimiento de su publicación inicial en esta revista.
  3. Se permite y se anima a los autores a difundir sus trabajos electrónicamente (por ejemplo, en repositorios institucionales o en su propio sitio web) antes y durante el proceso de envío, ya que puede dar lugar a intercambios productivos, así como a una citación más temprana y mayor de los trabajos publicados
  4. Los conceptos y opiniones expresados en los artículos son responsabilidad exclusiva de los autores y no comprometen a la Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana. Se autoriza la reproducción citando la fuente. Los contenidos de esta revista se distribuyen bajo licencia: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported