MODELOS DE SIMULACIÓN CLÍNICA PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE HABILIDADES CLÍNICAS EN CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

José Iván Alfonso Mantilla, Jaime Martínez Santa

Resumen


Introducción: En la actualidad la educación en salud se ha convertido en un eje de gran importancia para la formación de profesionales competentes en áreas de la salud como: Medicina, Enfermería, Fisioterapia, Terapia Ocupacional y Fonoaudiología. A través de los años se ha visto un crecimiento en la utilización de tecnología basada en simulación a través de maniquíes, simuladores virtuales y ambientes clínicos para la educación en estudiantes del área de la salud. 

Método: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, se realizo una búsqueda en bases de datos como: Science Citation Index, Medline, Ebsco, Scopus, Wiley Blackwell, Elsevier, Science Direct, Springer, MasterFILE Premier, Taylor francis. Se contemplaron estudios del año 2000 al 2015, literatura con los siguientes términos MESH: “Education”,
“students”, “Medical”, “Simulators¨, “Physiotherapy”.

Resultados: La evidencia identificada en relación a educación basada en simulación en áreas de la salud fue de N=51, los resultados muestran que un método educativo basado en ambientes de simulación clínica aumenta el conocimiento teorico/practico, habilidades clínicas, autoconfianza, rendimiento y seguridad del paciente en los procesos de atención
clínica. 

Conclusiones: La educación basada en simulación médica tiene características que mejoran la práctica clínica estas son: retroalimentación, práctica deliberada, integración curricular, medición de resultados, adquisición y mantenimiento de habilidades, el dominio del aprendizaje, transferencia a la práctica, formación del equipo, formación de instructores en
contexto educativo y profesional. 


Palabras clave


Educación, Estudiantes, Medicina, Simuladores, Fisioterapia

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Referencias


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